The hand is a very complex part of the body, formed by 19 bones, 14 joints, muscles, tendons and nerves. The intricate function of the hand depends on the close coordination between these structures. Hand contains some of the densest areas of nerve endings in the body, and is the richest source of sensory feedback to our brain. Besides, they also have the greatest positioning capability in our body.


The hand muscles are divided in to two groups - intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. The extrinsic muscles are located in the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm and are essential for hand and wrist movements. . They control crude movements and produce a forceful grip. The intrinsic muscles of the hand are located within the hand itself and are responsible for the fine motor functions of the hand. Three nerves are essential for the sensation and functioning of the hand. Median nerve is important for thumb function and sensation over thumb, index and middle finger. Ulnar nerve provides the dominant innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the hand and is responsible for power grip and sensation over little and part of ring finger. Radial nerve, though does not supply any muscles in hand, it provides sensation on the back of thumb and is responsible for extending wrist and fingers.



Common causes of hand pain are:

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  2. Arthritis
  3. Ganglion 
  4. De Quervain's disease
  5. Trigger finger or thumb
  6. Tenosynovitis (inflammation of a tendon sheath)
  7. Compression neuropathies
  8. Ligament instabilities in wrist
  9. Acute injuries
    • Finger Fractures
    • Fingertip Injuries and Amputations
    • Flexor Tendon Injuries
    • Hand Fractures
    • Human Bites
    • Lawn Mower Injuries in Children
    • Mallet Finger (Baseball Finger)
    • Nerve Injuries
    • Sprained Thumb
    • Thumb Fractures